Reporting and Discussing Structure damage

One thing that greenhouse operators don’t want to discuss is damage to their structure. With the increasingly regular occurrence of severe weather, it is something you need to be aware of to ensure a long structure life and service.

Being proactive is the best defense against the changes in our environment, controlling the variables we can.

At Multi Shelter Solutions we make every effort to make a superior and rugged product. We also inform our customers of everything required for the sturdy construction of these buildings.

Despite this, we strongly suggest a careful inspection after each major weather event, again, being proactive.

There is a level of satisfaction that comes after a structure comes through each storm. This is important, but if the structure has been severely stressed, this needs to be identified.

It will take less of a storm to do twice as much damage the next time.

A major warning sign would be things just not lining up the way that they used to. By sending us pictures, our experience will guide you to the areas that could be potentially damaged. To us, there may be flags which warrant investigation, that an untrained eye may not notice as an issue.

In worst case scenarios when there has been a structure failure, it is important to get us the pictures as soon as possible. It is important that details of circumstances are fresh in your mind.

When we ask questions, we are not trying to point any blame; we are simply trying to ensure, or at least significantly minimize, the chance of a repeat problem, when you do the rebuild.

We don’t sell you a structure, we help you buy one, and want to see your continued future success. Thank you for trusting MSS with your structure purchase and allowing us to share tips to increase your success and profitability

Aerodynamics Considerations on Greenhouses

Aerodynamics is a very complex concept in how it applies to greenhouses and similarly constructed buildings. The better that you understand these dynamics and how to deal with them, the better your chances of having long-term success with the structural integrity of your building.

In many of Norm’s presentations, he has compared the similar shape of a greenhouse to that of an airplane wing. The basic challenge is that you want the opposite result. An airplane needs to efficiently get off the ground while a greenhouse needs to stay where it is.

The greater the distance over a surface is (wing or building), the greater that the lift is. When height is combined with distance, there is a multiplier effect. That is why a pilot will extend the flaps on a wing when taking off and landing.

It is the vacuum on the backside of a structure or a wing that causes the lift. The upward force of the vacuum on the backside is actually double what the leading edge force is.

This effect happens exponentially even when a small change is made. Many people have suggested, “I am only lifting the building two feet (or some other relatively small amount)”. They do not realize that doing that small lift is sometimes adding 50% or even doubling the wind load on the building.

These forces must especially be considered when a structure is oriented so that the prevailing winds hit the sides of the building. Structurally, it is preferable to have the structure facing into the prevailing winds. If the lay of the land or the logistics of how you work in the structure do not allow this, there are ways that the stress on the building can be minimized.

The least expensive way to stiffen a building is to add crossties (also known as collar ties). Crossties tie the left and right sides of the structure together so that the load is more balanced in how it affects the structure. Reducing the hoop spacing will automatically make the structure stronger with a greater ability to resist the effects of external forces.

Ultimately, however, a structure’s ability to deal with the aerodynamics of a situation is only as good as the anchoring provided. Anchors provide stability for resisting up, down and lateral forces. There is no such thing as too many anchors.

These things add to the structural ability to handle things but it does not help the cover. Extra steps must be implemented to secure the sides of the cover. This includes but is not limited to adding extra and longer screws for the cover fastening system.

A discussion on aerodynamics is not complete without discussing windbreaks. The only effective windbreak is trees. Trees restrict the speed of the wind coming through and therefore minimize aerodynamic stresses on a building. There is an optimal distance from a windbreak. This is determined by the size, density and texture of the trees involved. Since this is something that changes with age and season, there is not a perfect formula.

One last note on windbreaks. Another building, especially a bigger building is not an effective barrier. If anything, this building will significantly increase the aerodynamic stresses on your building. Wind will be swirling in one direction and then a slight shift in wind direction will reverse the direction of the swirling.

Please note: We are not engineers and as such can not give structural opinions. The above points are simply items that should be considered and come from 40+ years of experience of watching what wind does to buildings.

Mitigating Climate Change with a Greenhouse

In a tongue-in-cheek manner, Norm has often declared that if it weren’t for crappy weather we would not have a business.

The plain reality of the fact is, people, use greenhouses to mitigate the negative impact of weather, and nature in general, on their food and plant production.

Greenhouses allow a person to control the local environment. The more efficient they are at that process, the more profitable they can potentially be.

The main areas of this control are heating, cooling, irrigation, disease and insect and weed control. When all of these areas are exercised efficiently, production can be significantly increased and the timing of production can be better controlled.

Heating is typically the number 1 expense in operating a greenhouse in colder climates in the wintertime. Numerous covers will reduce heat loss but it is often at the expense of light transmission. The cost of certain covers may not be justified in light of the heat savings they would create. There are creative ways that the area which needs to be heated can be reduced. Growers will often choose crops with lower heat requirements to reduce the expense. Even though the heating is usually associated with cold weather, heating can also be used when dew is present to reduce the risk of fungus diseases.

Cooling a greenhouse to acceptable levels is critical during warmer seasons. During warm times, this requires a minimum of one air change per minute. If the temperature goes about a plant’s high threshold, it will stop growing for up to two weeks. There is a wide range of options for cooling a greenhouse. Many of the passive methods are more economical to install but harder to control and fine-tune. Items like roof vents are extremely effective, and have a low operating cost but are costly to install and even more costly to automate. In addition to creating uniform air changes, it is equally important to have uniformly even moving air. Stagnant air fosters diseases.

Having an area covered with a greenhouse, allows the grower to control the water to the plants. Irrigation requires the proper timing and volume of water to the plants and also proper location. Many plants perform much better when the foliage remains dry.

Greenhouses can also protect plants from excessive rain during wet seasons. One often overlooked area of irrigation is existing groundwater. When there is a high water table, care must be taken not to over water plants.

Greenhouses provide management opportunities for disease and pest control. Especially with a proper irrigation protocol, the risk of diseases can be minimized. If insecticides or fungicides are being used, it is much more controlled in the controlled environment of the greenhouse. Systems of netting can be installed over the ventilation openings to prevent the entry of airborne pests. It is important to bear in mind that this netting does restrict airflow as well.

A greenhouse also allows for more control of the weed population. Weed seeds can be allowed to germinate in the beds and then rototill them under. In the protected environment of a greenhouse, it is easy to put down black plastic for a short period of time to kill off weeds and weed seeds. It is also important to remember that if netting is used over the roll-up side openings, this will restrict airflow. Proper airflow takes priority over weed control.

When all of the above points are worked together efficiently, the grower will be able to significantly increase his or her yields. There will also be the opportunity to control the timing of the harvest to take advantage of increased pricing. i.e having a crop ready 2-3 weeks ahead of field-grown crops will easily cover the added expenses of growing in a greenhouse.

Disclaimer: we are not professional growers. The above information should only be used to draw attention to the importance of certain concepts. It is critical to seek out the advice of a professional grower to work through issues.

If you’d like to read more about these topics, let us know. We hope to have a book about this put together in time for Christmas and Winter Planning!

Retightenting a Loose Cover

A question that we are often asked in the fall is “Do I put the cover on now or in the spring?”

As with most everything in life, there are two ways of looking at things and both sides have pros and cons. The answer is always the same though, “Put the cover on now since, in our opinion, the pros significantly outweigh the cons”

The pros of putting the cover on a new building in the fall include less frost penetration and a chance for ground moisture to start evaporating sooner than later. Less frost penetration means you will require much fewer heat units to get the structure operational in the spring (significant savings). Ground moisture is a challenge every new structure owner faces and allowing that extra time will significantly enhance the growing environment (much healthier).

The main con of putting the cover on in the fall is that with colder temperatures during installation, you will most likely be dealing with an excessively loose cover in the spring. This will be a task that needs to be dealt with to prevent premature cover wear. This will NOT be an ongoing issue. Once you deal with the loose cover, it will be good to go and add life to the cover.

Since cover tightening should not be undertaken until the temperature is consistently warm and warm enough It should therefore not be done until May and until the minimum temperature is over 20C. This requirement also means that you should use a temporary fix to carry you over until you can do a permanent fix.

Do not use rope (especially nylon) over a loose cover to temporarily tighten a cover unless you are facing an emergency. The abrasion factor will create new problems while you are dealing with the other problem. Seat belt material or ratchet straps make ideal fasteners for a loose cover.

If you do not have access to this and you know you will be dealing with a loose cover, you can call our office for some tarp scraps. These can be cut into 2” or 3” strips and then put over the cover at 12’ – 15’ intervals. It is important that the straps are lying flat on the cover before tightening.

When you have a warm calm day to tighten the cover, the job can be done in two stages. Since you must pull lengthwise, you can do one end on one day and the other end the next day. If you simply loosen one side and pull tight, you will have uneven tightening which still will have premature wear.

Once the two sides and one end are loose, pull toward the end and start refastening from the peak and work down. You are always working from the middle to the corner. If any wrinkles develop as you do this, always pull 90 degrees to the wrinkle. If the wind is still calm when you are finished with one end, you can then do the other end. It is important to remember that once you have started loosening the cover, you are committed to finishing the job. Having loose cover overnight is an invitation for trouble.

If anything in this article is not clear, please do not hesitate to contact us for clarification before you start.

Season Extension: Ventilation & Heating

To make your greenhouse more of a year round functioning entity, there are two main areas in which you have to make the structure more efficient-Heating and Ventilation.

1. Heating is your biggest expense for the winter so retaining heat is a priority.

The easiest way to retain heat in your greenhouse is to install a double poly cover with air in between. A small squirrel cage blower attached to the inside layer of plastic aids in maintaining air between layers.

The more dead air space between these layers you can create, the closer you will be to achieving a 30% reduction in heat loss. Holes will result in air movement and therefore less efficiency. 3″-5″ consistent space is ideal. It is a given that you would have less than that around the edges and over the ridge.

Double plastic will have a considerably longer life span. It is important to realize that as plastic gets older, the light transmission will be reduced which will reduce production.

Infrared plastic (IR poly) does further reduce heat loss and increase light diffusion so it can also be a consideration when looking for ways to reduce heating costs.

2. Ventilation is also one of your biggest considerations for the warmer times of the year. Ventilation can be done through forced or mechanical methods or passive through vents or roll up sides.

Vents are extremely effective since they can be placed higher up where the heat needs to be expelled. Mechanical ventilation is more costly both up front and to operate but it is easier to control since it is attached to a thermostat. For mechanical ventilation to be effective, it needs to be sized and located properly.

Roll up sides are less costly and simpler to install but are restricted by the fact that you have to be there to open and to close.

Climate control is especially challenging in the spring and the fall since most days you will have the need for both ventilating and heating.

One area that you need to be especially aware of is stagnant air. Without proper air movement, circulation and exchanging, stagnant air can cause many different types of diseases. It is important to understand what your plants require

Covid Update from MSS

We are grateful of how our customers have been working with us as we navigate protocols. It has allowed us to do our part in keeping staff and customers safe.

As of March 21, the provincial mandates no longer require masks. As a company, we view the current time as one of transition. There is no conclusive evidence that we are totally out of the woods on COVID-19 and will not be bogged down by further variants.

In recognition of this and how diligently our staff has been working to remain safe, we are keeping the office closed to visitors. Visitors can call and make an appointment to discuss their project. This meeting will take place in one of our outbuildings.

With regards to deliveries, we will still be adhering to our social distancing requirements between customers and driver. No signatures are required on paperwork and payments will continue to be handled in advance. By appointment, customers will be able to pick up products at a designated time and place.

We thank you for your co-operation as we work through these times.